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Will the Republicans Retain their Majority in the U.S. House of Representatives this Year?
Polly Says “No”

November 5th, 2006 Update

Alfred G. Cuzán

With only two days before voters go to the polls, Polly’s final forecast is that the Republicans will lose 23 seats in Tuesday’s elections to the U.S. House of Representatives and, hence, their majority. Their 12-year reign in the chamber, their longest since the 1920s (see Figure 1), is about to end.

Since Polly’s first report some three weeks ago, the president’s party’s “stock” has slumped in both the Iowa Electronic Markets and Tradesports.com. These markets trade in contracts specifying that the Republicans will hold on to their majority in the House. The resulting prices are interpreted as probabilities that they will do so. Averaging the two values yields the Pollybility, displayed in Figure2. The very latest calculation (computed with the closing prices of November 4) shows the Republicans with only a 0.25 chance of retaining control. (For two skeptical views, see Kastellec et al. 2006 and McTague 2006.)

Also, election watchers Stuart Rothenberg and Charlie Cook, and political scientist Larry Sabato, all have raised their estimate of the number of seats the Republicans stand to lose, an opinion shared by traders in Tradesports.com contracts on the number of seats the Democrats will win. These forecasts have been incorporated into a revised Table 1.

As explained previously, to arrive at her own prediction Polly performs simple computations on the forecasts of others, namely averaging. Our parrot first computes the average within the several methods by which forecasts are made, and then the average of these averages, i.e., the average across methods. This procedure has been shown to increase forecasting accuracy. (See Armstrong 2001. For an application to the 2004 presidential election, see Cuzán, Armstrong, and Jones 2005.)

According to Polly’s latest calculations, on Tuesday the Republicans will win 209 seats, or 23 fewer than they did in 2004. In sum, the will lose control of the U.S. House of Representatives to the Democrats.

REFERENCES

Armstrong, J. Scott (2001) Combining Forecasts, in Principles of Forecasting , Kluwer, pp. 417-439.

Cuzán, A. G., J. Scott Armstrong, and R. Jones, Jr. 2004. Combining Methods to Forecast the 2004 Presidential Election. Paper presented at the 2005 meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.

Kastellec, J. P., A. Gelman, and J. P. Chandler. 2006. Seeking 50% of the Seats, Needing More Than, 50% of the Votes: Predicting the Seats-Votes Curve in the 2006 Elections.

McTague, Jim. 2006. Survivor! The GOP Victory. Barron’s On-Line. October 23rd.


Table1. Forecasts for Republican Seat Losses 1 in the 2006
Elections for the U. S. House of Representatives

Author
(approximate date of prediction)

Method

Forecast
range2

Forecast
point2

Formal Models Not Driven by Late Polls
N3

Klarner & Buchanan**
(late April)

16

14-31

22*

Brandt & Brunell**
(late August)

30

6-19

12

Campbell
(early September)

14-30

10-16

13

Cuzán & Bundrick
(mid-October)

46

16-25

20*

Abramowitz 6
(mid October)

28

22-28

29*

Within-method average

19.2*

Polls and Polls-Driven
Models

Ansolabehere4
(early August)

8.0

Bafumi, Erikson & Wlezien
(late October)

15

32*

Within-method average

20*

Model Aided by
Judgment

Erikson4
(early August)

21*

Jacobson4
(late August)

20*

Within-method average

20.5*

Polls Aided by
Judgment

Cook
(30 October)

20-35

28*

Mann
(July)

20-30

25*

Rothenberg
(2 November)

34-40

37*

Sabato
(26 October)

23-30

27*

Within-method average

29.3*

Prediction Market

Tradesports.com5
(5 November)

25*

Pollyseat (average of the within-method averages)

22.8*

1 The base from which the loss is calculated is 232, the number of seats won in 2004. Any seat gain for the Democrats amounts to a seat loss for the Republicans.
2 The range refers to the lowest and the highest forecast obtained with alternative specifications or different models estimated by the author, or to his own educated guess based on a subjective estimate, if he relied on judgment. The forecast point was either specified by the author or calculated as the midpoint of the range.
3 N is the number of historical elections on which the model was based, although two models simulated additional “elections”.
4 Participants in Boston Review forecasting contest.
5 The contracts are specified in five-seat increments, i.e., more than 19.5 seats, more than 24.5 seats, and so on. The forecast was obtained by regressing seats on the closing prices (omitting those at either end of the spectrum) of 5 November GMT, and solving for 50%, a method suggested by Kesten Green.
6 Abramowitz’s range and point forecast do not match because the former is what was published in the October issue of PS: Politics and Political Science, but the latter was conveyed to Polly by him via e-mail on October 13th. Based on “information about challenger quality from Gary Jacobson,” Abramowitz’s “new prediction, based on previous Republican seat % of 53.5, midterm dummy variable of +1 (GOP presidential midterm), net presidential approval in first September Gallup Poll of -17, generic ballot margin in first September Gallup Poll of -12 (based on registered voters), 2% Democratic advantage in open seats and 3% Democratic advantage in challenger quality is a Democratic gain of 29 seats in the House.”

* Forecast calls for a turnover in control of the House of Representatives in favor of Democrats.
** Pollyprize entrant.

Figure1

Figure1


Will the Republicans retain their majority in the U.S. House of Representatives this year?
Polly says “No”.

Alfred G. Cuzán

October 24, 2006

As reported last week, Polly is back, this time with a prediction for the outcome of the November 7th U.S. House of Representatives elections. The Republicans are presently in the majority, as they have been for the last twelve years. They have not enjoyed such continuous control over the chamber since the 1920s (see Figure 1).

It appears, however, that this run is about to end. (For a skeptical view, see Kastellec et al. 2006 and McTague 2006.) At least, that’s what gamblers at the Iowa Electronic Markets andTradesports.com are betting on. These markets trade in contracts specifying that the Republicans will hold on to their majority in the House. The resulting prices are interpreted as probabilities that they will do so. Averaging the two values yields the Pollybility, displayed in Figure 2. The very latest calculation (computed with the closing prices of October 23rd) shows the Republicans with only a 0.35 chance of retaining control. (This is lower than last week’s.)

Also since last week, additional predictions have been uncovered or become available, one each by Bafuni, Erikson & Wlezien and Thomas Mann, both unfavorable to the Republicans. Also, Tradesports.com has opened a new prediction market, one trading contracts on the number of seats the Democrats will pick up. All these forecasts have been incorporated into a revised Table 1.

To arrive at her own prediction, Polly performs simple computations on the forecasts of others, namely averaging. Last week we averaged all forecasts pooled together. However, Polly prefers to compute first the average within the several methods by which forecasts are made, and then to compute the average of these averages, i.e., to average across methods. This procedure has been shown to increase forecasting accuracy. (See Armstrong 2001. For an application to the 2004 presidential election, see Cuzán, Armstrong, and Jones 2005.) This week’s calculations yield a Pollyseat value of 20.3 (only a fraction of a seat larger than if we simply averaged the forecasts pooled together). Rounding that number down to an even 20, Polly anticipates that the Republicans will win no more than 212 seats (compared to 232 in 2004).

In sum, based on all she has learned, with only two weeks of campaigning still to go, Polly predicts that the Democrats will emerge as the winners, albeit with a narrow majority.

REFERENCES

Armstrong, J. Scott (2001) Combining Forecasts, in Principles of Forecasting , Kluwer, pp. 417-439.

Cuzán, A. G., J. Scott Armstrong, and R. Jones, Jr. 2004. Combining Methods to Forecast the 2004 Presidential Election. Paper presented at the 2005 meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.

Kastellec, J. P., A. Gelman, and J. P. Chandler. 2006. Seeking 50% of the Seats, Needing More Than, 50% of the Votes: Predicting the Seats-Votes Curve in the 2006 Elections.

McTague, Jim. 2006. Survivor! The GOP Victory. Barron’s On-Line. October 23rd.


Table1. Forecasts for Republican Seat Losses1 in the 2006
Elections for the U. S. House of Representatives

Author
(approximate date of prediction)

Method

Forecast
range2

Forecast
point2

Formal Models Not Driven by Late Polls
N3

Klarner & Buchanan**
(late April)

16

14-31

22*

Brandt & Brunell**
(late August)

30

6-19

12

Campbell
(early September)

14-30

10-16

13

Cuzán & Bundrick
(mid-October)

46

16-25

20*

Abramowitz
(mid October)

28

22-28

29*

Within-method average

19.2*

Polls and Polls-Driven
Models

Ansolabehere4
(early August)

8.0

Bafumi, Erikson & Wlezien
(late October)

15

32*

Within-method average

20.5*

Model Aided by
Judgment

Erikson4
(early August)

21*

Jacobson4
(late August)

20*

Within-method average

20.5*

Polls Aided by
Judgment

Cook
(early October)

14-17

16*

Mann
(July)

20-30

25*

Rothenberg
(mid-October)

18-25

22*

Sabato
(mid-October)

18-22

20*

Within-method average

20.8*

Prediction Market

Tradesports.com5
(24 October)

21

Pollyseat (average of the within-method averages)

20.3*

1 The base from which the loss is calculated is 232, the number of seats won in 2004. Any seat gain for the Democrats amounts to a seat loss for the Republicans.
2 The range refers to the lowest and the highest forecast obtained with alternative specifications or different models estimated by the author, or to his own educated guess based on a subjective estimate, if he relied on judgment. The forecast point was either specified by the author or calculated as the midpoint of the range.
3 N is the number of historical elections on which the model was based, although two models simulated additional “elections”.
4 Participants in Boston Review forecasting contest.
5 The contracts are specified in five-seat increments, i.e., more than 19.5 seats, more than 24.5 seats, and so on. The forecast was obtained by regressing seats on the closing prices on 24 October (omitting those at either end of the spectrum) and solving for 50%, a method suggested by Kesten Green.

* Forecast calls for a turnover in control of the House of Representatives in favor of Democrats.
** Pollyprize entrant.


Figure1

Figure1



Will the Republicans retain their majority in the U.S. House of Representatives this year?
Polly says “No”.

Alfred G. Cuzán

October 12, 2006

Polly is back! Over the last few weeks, our peripatetic parrot has been collecting forecasts on the November 7th elections for the U.S. House of Representatives. The Republicans are presently in the majority, as they have been for the last twelve years. They have not enjoyed such continuous control over the chamber since the 1920s (see Figure 1).

It appears, however, that this run is about to end. As Table 1 shows, all but three of the eleven forecasts Polly has collected this year are calling for a Democratic victory next month. Averaging across these predictions, a procedure that has been shown to increase forecasting accuracy (Armstrong 2001), one arrives at the Pollyseat. Its value is 18, or three more than what the Democrats need to retake the House. (Since only one representative is not affiliated with either party, almost invariably a Republican loss is a Democratic gain and vice-versa.)

As well as reviewing what forecasters and other experienced elections watchers have seen in their crystal balls, Polly has kept her eye on two prediction markets. These are the Iowa Electronic Markets and Tradesports.com. These markets trade in contracts specifying that the Republicans will hold on to their majority in the House. The resulting prices are interpreted as probabilities. Averaging the two, Polly has computed her own Pollybility. The very latest calculation (computed with the closing prices of October 11th) shows the Republicans with only a 0.40 chance of retaining control.

In sum, based on all she has learned, with three weeks of campaigning still to go, Polly predicts that the Democrats will emerge as the winners, albeit with a narrow majority.

REFERENCE

Armstrong, J. Scott (2001) Combining Forecasts, in Principles of Forecasting, Kluwer, pp. 417-439.


Table1. Forecasts for Republican Seat Losses1 in the 2006 Elections
for the U. S. House of Representatives

Author
(approximate date of prediction)

Method

Forecast
range2

Forecast
point

Formal model
N3

Abramowitz
(mid October)

28

22-28

29*

Brandt & Brunell**
(late August)

30

6-19

12

Campbell
(early September)

14-30

10-16

13

Cuzán & Bundrick
(mid-October)

46

16-25

20*

Klarner & Buchanan**
(late April)

16

14-31

22*

Model aided by
judgment

Erikson4
(early August)

21*

Jacobson4
(late August)

20*

Polls

Ansolabehere4
(early August)

8

Polls aided by
judgment

Cook
(early October)

14-17

16*

Rothenberg
(early October)

15-20

18*

Sabato
(mid-October)

18-22

20*

Pollyseat (aka Average)

18*

1 The base from which the loss is calculated is 232, the number of seats won in 2004.
2 N is the number of historical elections on which the model was based, although some models simulated additional “elections.”
3 The range refers to the lowest and the highest forecast obtained with alternative specifications or different models estimated by the author, or to his own educated guess based on a subjective estimate, if he relied on judgment.
4 Participants in Boston Review forecasting contest.

* Forecast calls for a turnover in control of the House of Representatives in favor of Democrats.
** Pollyprize entrant.

Figure1Figure1

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